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6th World Kidney Congress, will be organized around the theme “Theme: "Kidney Diseases- Act Early to Counter it"”
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Nephrology is a practice dealing with adult internal medicine and paediatric medicine that is concerned with the study of the kidneys, especially normal kidney function - renal physiology and kidney disease which is renal pathophysiology, the maintenance of kidney health, along with the treatment of kidney disease, from diet and medication up to the renal replacement therapy called as dialysis or kidney transplantation.
Paediatric nephrology is a specialization that deals with the skills and experiences to treat children who are suffering from kidney or urinary tract diseases, kidney stones, or issues with high blood pressure. Paediatric nephrologists handle children from infant to late adolescence and in cases even up to young adulthood.
Renal pathology is defined as a subspecialty of anatomic pathology that deals with the analysis and classification of medical diseases associated with the kidneys. Kidney diseases arise due to the damage to the glomerulus, the tubules, the vessels, or the combination of those sections.
Chronic kidney disease is also known as chronic kidney failure, which is characterized by a gradual loss of kidney functioning. The main function of kidneys is to filter wastes and excess fluids from human blood, finally excreted through urine. The early stages of CKD can be characterized by mild signs and symptoms. Chronic kidney disease can advance to kidney failure, which can be fatal without the process of dialysis.
- Chronic kidney failure
- Kidney functioning
- Human blood
High blood pressure causes constriction and narrowing of the blood vessels, which ultimately destroys and impairs them throughout the body, including the kidneys. The narrowing of the blood vessels can lead to decreased blood flow. If the blood vessels associated with the kidneys are damaged, that may lead to impaired functioning of the kidneys. When untreated this may ultimately lead to Chronic kidney failure.
Renal arteriosclerosis is also called nephrosclerosis or hypertensive nephrosclerosis. Renal arteriosclerosis is the injury caused to the kidney due to infiltration by the fibrous connective tissue, usually caused by renovascular diseases or chronic hypertension. Lupus nephritis is defined as the inflammation of the kidneys caused due to systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), which is defined as an autoimmune disorder. It is defined as a kind of glomerulonephritis during which the glomeruli of the kidney becomes inflamed.
- Hypertensive nephrosclerosis
- Fibrous connective tissue
- Renovascular diseases
- Autoimmune disorders
Diabetic nephropathy can also be termed as a diabetic renal disorder. Diabetic nephropathy can be a complication related to the kidney usually seen in people with diabetes mellitus. Diabetic nephropathy can be diagnosed with the help of a urine test. The renal biopsy also determines the functioning of the kidney.
Acute kidney failure can also be termed acute kidney injury. Acute kidney failure transpires when the kidneys abruptly become incapable to filter waste products from the blood. When the kidneys lose their filtering capability, high levels of wastes may accumulate, and the blood's chemical balance may get out of stability. It is said to fatal and requires immediate treatment.
Urinary tract infection (UTI) is defined as an infection caused to any part of the body's urinary system which includes kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra. UTI is most commonly seen in the lower urinary tract. Mostly Women are at greater risk of developing a UTI than are men. These are commonly treated by medications including Antibiotics.
- Urinary system
- Urinary bladder
- Lower urinary tract
Mineral and bone disorders in CKD transpire when impaired kidneys and unusual hormone levels causes imbalances in the calcium and phosphorus levels in the blood. Mineral and bone disorder is most commonly seen in people with CKD which affects most people with kidney failure undergoing dialysis.
Renal nutrition aims at ensuring that the patients with kidney diseases eat the customary foods to cure them and improve health. Renal Nutrition can even be described as the diet recommended in case of chronic renal failure which is meant to maintain the consumption of macromolecule, potassium, sodium, phosphorus, along with the necessary fluids. Renal nutrition objects for providing the special nutritional requirements of kidney patients.
- Kidney diseases
- Chronic renal failure
- Nutritional requirements
A kidney transplant is defined as the medical method that is performed to treat renal failure. This is the method of choice for patients with end-stage kidney damage. Kidney transplantation is known as living donor or cadaveric transplantation relying upon the wellspring of the giver organ.
- Renal failure
- Kidney damage
- Renal transplant
- Cadaveric transplantation
- End stage kidney disease (ESKD)
Dialysis operates on the principle of the distribution of solutes and the ultrafiltration of liquid through a semi-permeable membrane. The movement of liquids from the region of high concentration to the region of low concentration is called as diffusion. Dialysis of two types namely
Renal replacement therapy (RRT) is defined as the therapy that substitutes the blood-filtering function of the kidneys. It is recommended in the cases like renal failure and chronic renal disorders. The treads of renal replacement therapy include haemodialysis, hemofiltration, peritoneal dialysis and hemodiafiltration. Renal replacement therapeutic care conjointly includes kidney transplantation also.
Robotic surgery for large kidney tumours usually commences to more accurate surgery with fewer complications. Robotic surgery uses a robot to assist surgeons with higher accuracy and administration during operation. It is a potent tool for managing kidney cancer.