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Chronic kidney diseases (CKD), categorized as persistent disorders, encompass conditions that inflict damage on the kidneys, compromising their ability to effectively eliminate waste through abnormal functionality. As chronic kidney disease progresses, there is a buildup of waste at elevated levels in the blood, leading to feelings of illness. This condition can give rise to complications such as anemia, high blood pressure, weakened bones, nerve damage, and compromised nutritional health. Furthermore, chronic kidney disease heightens the risk of developing coronary thrombosis and heart-related issues. These complications may manifest gradually over an extended period. The primary culprits behind chronic kidney disease are diabetes and hypertension.
- Track 1-1Blood pressure
- Track 1-2Nerve damage
- Track 1-3Coronary thrombosis
Kidney disease can contribute to coronary artery or heart disease, resulting in the death of over 20 million individuals in the U.S. with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The presence of CKD significantly heightens the risk of death from cardiovascular diseases, with coronary disease accounting for the majority of fatalities in CKD patients. Even in the early or mild stages of renal disease, individuals face an elevated risk of heart-related issues, including heart attacks and death from heart disease. Among kidney dialysis patients with pre-existing cardiovascular disease, mortality rates are 10 to 30 times higher than in the general population of cardiovascular patients. Major risk factors for both heart disease and chronic kidney disease include diabetes and hypertension. Regardless of the presence of hypertension, elevated cholesterol, and concurrent diabetes, kidney disease (whether acute or chronic) can escalate the risk of cardiovascular illness.
Transplantation involves the surgical placement of a healthy kidney to take over the blood-cleaning function in patients experiencing kidney failure. It is categorized as living donor transplantation or deceased donor transplantation based on the source of the organ. Kidney transplantation becomes a treatment option when kidneys fail, alongside options like hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis. There are two types of kidney transplants: those from living donors and those from unrelated donors who have passed away (non-living donors). Kidney transplantation is suitable for patients capable of withstanding the surgical effects, managing immunosuppressant medication, and adhering to post-transplantation medications, offering a high likelihood of success.
Individuals suffering from a wide range of kidney infections and hypertension, including chronic or severe kidney diseases, kidney stones, hypertension due to any cause, safe or secondary hypertension, cystic kidney disease, acquired kidney disease, abnormalities in liquid and electrolyte homeostasis, kidney problems related to pregnancy, nephritis, glomerulonephritis, vascular kidney disease, and others. When the pressure of blood on vein dividers increases to a point where it causes pain, hypertension results. A blood pressure reading of 130/80 or higher is considered high for individuals with diabetes or chronic renal disease. Several types of renal disease can result in hypertension.
Your nephrologist will strive to regulate or manage the cause of your kidney disease. Depending on the underlying cause, some types of kidney disease can be treated. However, in many cases, chronic kidney disease is not preventable. If your kidneys suffer significant damage, you may need treatment for end-stage kidney disease. If your kidneys can no longer keep up with waste and fluid removal on their own, leading to complete or near-complete kidney failure, you are diagnosed with end-stage renal disorder. In such cases, dialysis or a kidney transplant becomes necessary. As there is no singular alternative in Ayurveda or traditional medicine that can effectively treat kidney failure, the most effective approach is to integrate them. Immunotherapy, a significant breakthrough in treating end-stage kidney disease, represents a combination of advanced Western medical techniques and traditional herbal remedies.
The paired retroperitoneal organs, namely the kidneys, are situated posterior to the peritoneum, positioned at the level of the T12 to L3 vertebral bodies in a lateral orientation. Renal cysts develop within the kidneys, enclosed in a fibrous capsule protected by pararenal fat. The kidney itself can be divided into the renal parenchyma, consisting of the renal cortex and medulla, and the renal sinus, which encompasses the renal pelvis, calyces, renal venous structures, nerves, lymphatic, and perirenal fat. The renal parenchyma comprises two layers: the renal cortex and medulla. The renal medulla consists of 10-14 renal pyramids, while the renal cortex lies immediately beneath the capsule, separated by renal segments. The kidneys play a crucial role in filtration and excretion of metabolic waste products such as urea and ammonium, maintenance of electrolyte balance, regulation of fluid and acid-base balance, as well as the production of red blood cells through the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system.
Kidney stones are solid formations comprising minerals and salt that form within the kidneys, also referred to as renal calculi, nephrolithiasis, or urolithiasis. Various factors, including diet, excess body weight, specific supplements, drugs, and certain medical conditions, can contribute to the development of kidney stones. Any part of the urinary tract, including the kidneys and bladder, may be susceptible to kidney stones and related diseases. When urine becomes concentrated, minerals can crystallize, adhere together, and often result in the formation of stones. While the passage of kidney stones can be intensely painful, early detection usually prevents permanent harm. Depending on the circumstances, managing kidney stones may only require painkillers and increased water intake. Surgery may be necessary in cases where stones are lodged in the urinary tract, associated with an infection, or causing complications.
The predominant form of kidney replacement therapy is dialysis, a process that mimics the function of kidneys in purifying the blood. There are two main types of dialysis:
Hemodialysis is essential for individuals experiencing renal failure. In this procedure, an artificial kidney is employed to cleanse the blood. An "access" point, typically in the lower arm, facilitates the easy extraction of blood from the patient's body. This blood is then directed to the artificial kidney for purification. After the cleansing process, the purified blood is reintroduced into the patient's body.
Peritoneal dialysis does not utilize an artificial kidney. Instead, the peritoneum, the lining inside the abdomen, serves as a natural filter. There are two subtypes of peritoneal dialysis: continuous cycling peritoneal dialysis and continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. This method is employed in patients with kidney failure.
Longer-living patients are more likely to get infections that lead to chronic kidney disorders, which frequently go undiagnosed until an emergency dialysis session is required. Multiple renal cysts are a characteristic of renal cystic disease, which is a broad category of pathological features that can be defined as either acquired or hereditary. It can also be classed as a primary or secondary renal ailment. Every disease entity has a different presentation, prognosis, and course of treatment. Renal cysts are spherical, fluid-filled entities with smooth walls that are encircled by renal tubules that protrude centrally. But lately, there have been notable advancements, particularly in our knowledge of autosomal dominant and autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disorders (ADPKD and ARPKD). A developing picture suggests that abnormalities in cellular cyclic AMP (cAMP) buildup, intracellular calcium control, and basic ciliary signalling pathways all contribute to changed cellular functioning.
The uterus becomes large during pregnancy and packs the ureters. This alteration causes the kidneys to retain pee, which causes the urine to remain dormant. As a result, rather than washing out, the microscopic organisms accumulate in the kidney. Contamination results from this. The majority of the time, renal problems only worsen in pregnant women with uncontrolled hypertension. A chronic renal disease before to conception increases the risk that the foetus will not develop normally or will be stillborn. Most typically, women who have a major renal disease are unable to carry their babies to term.
Pathogenic immune responses against renal auto antigens or the localised emergence of basic autoimmunity frequently target the kidneys. Renal pathologists use specialised testing and electron microscopes to detect the cells linked to diseases that affect the kidneys. Kidney biopsies enable us to examine renal clutters, assess expectations, assist in identifying the most effective corrective strategy, and monitor the development of disease in both adjacent and allograft transplant kidneys. A combination of light, immunofluorescence, and electron microscopy is used to maximally mishandle renal biopsy images. Since every microscope needs specific preparation and obsession techniques, renal biopsy foci are often divided into three sections. Kidney biopsy.
Diabetic kidney disease, also known as diabetic nephropathy, is a renal complication that often arises in individuals with diabetes mellitus. In diabetic nephropathy, the kidney's filters and glomeruli suffer damage, leading to an abnormal release of a significant amount of protein from the blood into the urine. Over an extended period, this condition can result in kidney damage. The primary function of the kidneys is to cleanse the blood, and if they are impaired, waste and fluids accumulate in the bloodstream without being properly eliminated from the body. When diabetes causes damage to the kidneys, it is termed diabetic nephropathy. Typically, this condition begins before noticeable symptoms appear, with the initial sign being a small amount of protein in the urine. Diagnostic tests such as urine tests or blood tests can identify diabetic nephropathy and assess the kidney's functionality.
This category includes bladder and kidney infections as well as infections of the prostate organ. Urinary tract infections typically affect the bladder or urethra, but more serious and authentic contaminations involve the kidney. An infection of the bladder can cause pelvic pain, prolonged slanting to urinate, pain during urinating, and pain with blood in the urine. Renal disease can include fever, vomiting, illness, and back pain.
Medical professionals in nephrology use the nursing process to care for patients of any age who have a kidney infection or are at risk of developing one. Nephrology nursing involves both preventing disease and assessing patients' and families' needs for well-being. Nursing care spans the life span and involves patients experiencing the real or catastrophic aftermath of severe or chronic renal disease; thus, nephrology medical professionals need to be well-versed, extraordinarily talented, and invigorated. These attendants also oversee every organ system in the body, necessitating a comprehensive approach to ongoing care that is both rewarding and challenging. Propelled by inventive and educational breakthroughs, nephrology nursing remains a vibrant area offering a diverse range of career opportunities for healthcare providers at every level.
The metabolic syndrome abnormalities associated with chronic renal disease are caused by a disorder of protein-vitamin squandering. Those with renal clutters should maintain a healthy lifestyle, especially if they also have diabetes, hypertension, or both conditions. Diabetic complications, such as kidney infections, can be avoided or delayed with proper blood glucose management. Kidney sickness may be warded off with the food and beverages you consume. You can choose foods that are easier on your kidneys by following the advice of a dietician about protein, potassium, phosphorus, and sodium. This highlights the significance of nutrition and teaches you how to read nutrition labels and handouts.
The most typical kind of treatment for people with end-stage kidney disease is kidney transplantation (KT). Historically, large incisions have been made during open surgery in order to administer excretory organ transplants. But in more recent times, the process is being carried out using minimally invasive surgical techniques. Golem power-assisted excretory organ transplantation (RAKT), which uses a robotic assistance to complete the KT, may be a minimally invasive procedure. Since kidney transplantation and robotic surgery require a high level of experience, transplant surgeons with extensive training and proficiency in artificial intelligence and transplant surgery execute RAKT.
When the kidneys cease working properly, dialysis is used to eliminate waste products and excess fluid from the blood. It frequently entails transferring blood to a machine for cleaning.
The essential organs known as kidneys, shaped like beans, play a crucial role in sustaining life. Positioned behind the abdominal organs and beneath the rib cage on either side of the spine, the kidneys serve various vital functions. They filter blood to eliminate waste products generated from regular bodily processes, expelling these byproducts from the body through urine, and selectively reabsorbing water and essential chemicals. Additionally, the kidneys release hormones to regulate blood pressure, including erythropoietin, which stimulates the production of red blood cells. The kidneys produce urine, which is then transported to the bladder via the ureters. The bladder functions as a reservoir for urine, and the body triggers the production of urine when it senses the bladder is full.
Mesenchyme stem cells a type of stem cell that plays a significant role in kidney healing and the body's natural defense against kidney damage. Found in the bone marrow, these stem cells protect the kidneys from injury and accelerate healing.
A biomarker is a substance introduced into an organism to assess organ function or various aspects of health. For instance, rubidium chloride is employed in isotopic labeling to assess the perfusion of the heart muscle. Alternatively, it can be a substance whose detection indicates a specific disease state; for example, the presence of an antibody may signify an infection. More specifically, a biomarker indicates a change in the expression or condition of a protein that is associated with the risk or progression of a disease, or the responsiveness of the disease to a given treatment. Biomarkers can be distinctive biological properties or molecules detectable and measurable in body parts such as blood or tissue. They may signify either normal or diseased processes in the body. Biomarkers can include specific cells, molecules, or genes, gene products, chemicals, or hormones. Complex organ functions or overall characteristic changes in biological systems can also serve as biomarkers.
In individuals with chronic kidney disease, mineral and bone disorders, collectively known as renal osteodystrophy, are prevalent. Patients with chronic kidney diseases often exhibit imbalances in calcium and phosphorus levels in their blood due to hormonal disruptions, ultimately leading to kidney failure and the need for dialysis. The kidneys play a crucial role in preserving healthy bone mass and structure by regulating phosphorus and calcium levels in the bloodstream. Healthy kidneys stimulate the conversion of a type of vitamin D, obtained from food, into calcitriol, the active form of the vitamin. Calcitriol aids the kidneys in maintaining blood calcium levels and promoting bone formation. Additionally, the kidneys eliminate excess phosphorus, ensuring a balance between phosphorus and calcium levels in the blood. Maintaining optimal phosphorus levels in the blood is essential for preserving strong and healthy bones.