Kidney Failure

The paired retroperitoneal organs, namely the kidneys, are situated posterior to the peritoneum, positioned at the level of the T12 to L3 vertebral bodies in a lateral orientation. Renal cysts develop within the kidneys, enclosed in a fibrous capsule protected by pararenal fat. The kidney itself can be divided into the renal parenchyma, consisting of the renal cortex and medulla, and the renal sinus, which encompasses the renal pelvis, calyces, renal venous structures, nerves, lymphatic, and perirenal fat. The renal parenchyma comprises two layers: the renal cortex and medulla. The renal medulla consists of 10-14 renal pyramids, while the renal cortex lies immediately beneath the capsule, separated by renal segments. The kidneys play a crucial role in filtration and excretion of metabolic waste products such as urea and ammonium, maintenance of electrolyte balance, regulation of fluid and acid-base balance, as well as the production of red blood cells through the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system.


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